Medical English 

Pneumonia- Viêm Phổi

Pneumonia: viêm phổi

1/ Giải phẫu đường hô hấp dưới:

                                                                          Hình minh họa cấu trúc giải phẫu đường hô hấp dưới

Intralobular bronchiole: tiểu phế quản trong tiểu thùy

Smooth muscle: cơ trơn

Alveolus: phế nang-> plural: alveoli

Terminal bronchiole: tiểu phế quản tận

Alveolar duct/sac: ống/túi phế nang

2/ Triệu chứng:

                                                                   Hình ảnh minh họa bệnh nhân viêm phổi

Chest pain: đau ngực

Fever, sweating: sốt, vả mồ hôi

Shortness of breath: khó thở

Shaking chills: sốt lạnh run

Cough with phlegm: ho có đàm

Loss of appetite: không ngon miệng

Fatigue: mệt mỏi

Confusion: lẫn lộn

Headache: đau đầu

3/ Phân loại, nguyên nhân:

a/ Community- acquired pneumonia: viêm phổi cộng đồng

b/ Hospital- acquired pneumonia: viêm phổi bệnh viện

c/ Healthcare- acquired pneumonia: viêm phổi do chăm sóc y tế

d/ Aspiration pneumonia: viêm phổi hít

Viêm phổi có thể do các tác nhân sau:

Bacteria: vi khuẩn

Viruses: vi rút

Fungi: nấm

Parasites: kí sinh trùng

4/ Yếu tố nguy cơ:

Cigarette smoking: hút thuốc lá

Diabetes mellitus: đái tháo đường

Heart diseases: bệnh tim

Liver cirrhosis: xơ gan

Cerebral palsy: liệt não(dễ gây viêm phổi hít)

Chronic pulmonary diseases: bệnh phổi mãn tính(asthma: hen, COPD: bệnh tắc nghẽn phổi mãn tính)

Surgery, trauma: phẫu thuật, chấn thương

Living in nursing home: sống trong viện dưỡng lão

Weakned immune system: hệ miễn dịch suy yếu(AIDS, thuốc, độc chất,…)

5/ Chẩn đoán:

Khám:

Fine crackle rales: ran nổ

Coarse crackle rales: ran ẩm

Wheezing: ran ngáy

Decreased vesicular sounds : rì rào phế nang giảm

Cận lâm sàng:

Chest X rays: x quang ngực

Blood tests: xét nghiệm máu

Arteral blood gases: khí máu động mạch

CT scan: cắt lớp vi tính

Pleural fluid culture: cấy dịch màng phổi

Sputum tests: xét nghiệm đàm mủ

Bronchoscopy: nội soi phế quản

Pulse oximetry: đo độ bão hòa oxy(SpO2)

                                                                                             Hình ảnh minh họa nội soi phế quản

6/ Điều trị:

Antibiotics: kháng sinh

Antiviral drugs: thuốc kháng vi rút

Drinks plenty water, fluids: uống nhiều nước, dịch

Get lots of rest: nghỉ ngơi nhiều

Controling fever:  hạ sốt (dùng các thuốc: aspirin, acetaminophen, NSAIDS,…)

 

Nếu các bạn thấy hay và bổ ích thì đừng quên chia sẻ nhé!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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